Spring 2019 EXTRAS

Sense and Sensitivity

W. Thomas Boyce and Bruce J. Ellis, “Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity,” Development and Psychopathology 17 (2005): 271–301.


US: orienteeringusa.org
Canada: orienteering.ca
World Orienteering Day: orienteering.org

Cricket protein

  1. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0177719
  2. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3253e/i3253e.pdf
  3. Stull et al. 2018
  4. Shibata et al. 2014
  5. FAO cites van Huis, 2013
  6. Oonincx et al., 2010


  1. https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/glyphosate
  2. https://equiterre.org/sites/fichiers/backgrounder_glyphosate_2018.pdf, Williams, A. L. et al. 2012. Developmental and reproductive outcomes in humans and animals after glyphosate exposure: a critical analysis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, Critical Reviews, 15(1): 39-96.
  3. https://www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/glyphosate
  4. http://static.producer.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/CFIA_ACIA-9123346-v1-FSSD-FSSS-Glyphosate-Final-Report-15-16_0184101.pdf#_ga=1.196489061.892407858.1492107204
  5. https://www.ewg.org/childrenshealth/glyphosateincereal/
  6. https://www.ewg.org/release/roundup-breakfast-part-2-new-tests-weed-killer-found-all-kids-cereals-sampled
  7. https://environmentaldefence.ca/report/media-backgrounder-monsanto-papers/

Kitchen staples

  1. https://foodrevolution.org/blog/what-is-nutritional-yeast/1
  2. http://fodmapfriendly.com/blogpost/nutritional-yeast-is-low-fodmap/

Fertility and struggling to conceive

  1. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/fertility/fertility.html
  2. Thoma, Marie E., Alexander C. McLain, Jean Fredo Louis, Rosalind B. King, Ann C. Trumble, Rajeshwari Sunda- ram, and Germaine M. Buck Louis. “Prevalence of Infertility in the United States as Estimated by the Current Duration Approach and a Traditional Constructed Approach.” Fertility and Sterility 99, no. 5 (2013): 1324–331.
  3. Carlsen, E., A. Giwercman, N. Keiding, and N.E. Skakkebaek. “Evidence for Decreasing Quality of Semen During Past 50 Years.” BMJ 305, no. 6854 (1992): 609–13.
  4. Connor, Steve. “Out for the Count: Why Levels of Sperm in Men Are Falling.” The Independent, December 1, 2013.
  5. Laurance, Jeremy. “Scientists Warn of Sperm Count Crisis.” The Independent, December 1, 2013.
  6. M. Rolland, J. Le Moal, V. Wagner, D. Royère, J. De Mouzon; Decline in semen concentration and morphology in a sample of 26 609 men close to general population between 1989 and 2005 in France, Human Reproduction, Volume 28, Issue 2, 1 February 2013, Pages 462–470, https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/des415
  7. Levine, Hagai et al. Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Human Reproduction Update, 2017; 1 DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx022
  8. Cooper et al., “World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics, Human Reproduction Update, Vol.16, No.3 pp. 231–245, 2010. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmp048
  9. Menkveld R. “Clinical significance of the low normal sperm morphology value as proposed in the fifth edition of the WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.” Asian J Androl. 2010;12(1):47-58.   
  10. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/org/diphr/od/research/longitudinal
  11. Buck Louis, G M et al. “Paternal exposures to environmental chemicals and time-to-pregnancy: overview of results from the LIFE study” Andrology vol. 4,4 (2016): 639-47.
  12. Rushing, Reece. “Reproductive Roulette: Declining Reproductive Health, Dangerous Chemicals, and a New Way Forward.” Center for American Progress, July 21, 2009. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/reports/2009/07/21/6431/reproductive-roulette/
  13. Cole, William. “11 Everyday Toxins that Are Harming Your Thyroid.” MindBodyGreen, January 21, 2014. http://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-%2012346/11-everyday-toxins-that-are-harming-your-thyroid.html  Accessed December 4, 2016.
  14. Wu, Haotian, Russ Hauser, Stephen A. Krawetz, and J. Richard Pilsner. “Environmental Susceptibility of the Sperm Epigenome During Windows of Male Germ Cell Development” Curr Environ Health Rep. 2015; 2(4): 356–366. doi:10.1007/s40572-015-0067-7
  15. Wohl, M., and P. Gorwood. “Paternal Ages Below or Above 35 Years Old Are Associated with a Different Risk of Schizophrenia in the Offspring.” European Psychiatry 22, no. 1 (2007): 22–26. doi:10.1016/j. eurpsy.2006.08.007.
  16. Hultman, C.M., S. Sandin, S.Z. Levine, et al. “Advancing Paternal Age and Risk of Autism: New Evidence from a Population-Based Study and a Meta- analysis of Epidemiological Studies.” Molecular Psychiatry 16, no. 12 (2011): 1203–12. doi:10.1038/mp.2010.121.
  17. Whitley E, Deary IJ, Der G, Batty GD, Benzeval M (2012) Paternal Age in Relation to Offspring Intelligence in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS ONE 7(12): e52112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052112
  18. Pembrey, Marcus et al. “Human transgenerational responses to early-life experience: potential impact on development, health and biomedical research” Journal of medical genetics vol. 51,9 (2014): 563-72.
  19. Vilela, ML, Willingham E, Buckley J, Liu BC, Agras K, Shiroyanagi Y, Baskin LS. “Endocrine disruptors and hypospadias: role of genistein and the fungicide vinclozolin.” Urology. 2007 Sep;70(3):618-21.
  20. Pembrey, Marcus et al. “Human transgenerational responses to early-life experience: potential impact on development, health and biomedical research” Journal of medical genetics vol. 51,9 (2014): 563-72.
  21. Adelheid Soubry, Epigenetic inheritance and evolution: A paternal perspective on dietary influences, Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Volume 118, Issues 1–2, 2015, pp 79-85, ISSN 0079-6107, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.02.008
  22. van Dijk, Susan J et al. “Recent developments on the role of epigenetics in obesity and metabolic disease” Clinical epigenetics vol. 7 66. 11 Jul. 2015, doi:10.1186/s13148-015-0101-5
  23. Curley JP, Mashoodh R, Champagne FA. “Epigenetics and the Origins of Paternal Effects,” Hormones and Behaviours. 2011;59(3):306-314. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.06.018.
  24. Coletta JM, Bell SJ, Roman AS. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Pregnancy. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010;3(4):163-171.
  25. https://www.ewg.org/tapwater/reviewed-atrazine.php
  26. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. “A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility.” Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;63(1):78-86. Epub 2007 Sep 19.
  27. Chavarro JE et al., January 2007, Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85 (1), 231-237.
  28. Barrett, J.R. “The Science of Soy: What Do We Really Know?” Environmental Health Perspectives. 114, no. 6 (2006): A352–A358.
  29. Daniel, Kaayla T. The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of Americas Favorite Health Food. Washington, DC: New Trends, 2005.
  30. Chavarro, Jorge E., et al. “Soy Intake Modifies the Relation Between Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 101, no. 3 (2016): 1082–90. doi:10.1210/jc.2015-3473.
  31. Chavarro, Jorge E., et al. “Soy Food and Isoflavone Intake in Relation to Semen Quality Parameters Among Men from an Infertility Clinic.” Human Reproduction 23, no. 11 (2008): 2584–90. doi:10.1093/humrep/den243.
  32. Conrad, S., et al. “Soy Formula Complicates Management of Congenital Hypothyroidism.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 89, no. 1 (2004): 37–40.
  33. Hatch EE, Bracken MB. “Association of delayed conception with caffeine consumption.” Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Dec 15;138(12):1082-92.
  34. Weng, X., Odouli, R. & Li, D.K., “Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: A prospective cohort study,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology,2008: 198, e1-8.
  35. Rushing, Reece. “Reproductive Roulette: Declining Reproductive Health, Dangerous Chemicals, and a New Way Forward.” Center for American Progress, July 21, 2009. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/reports/2009/07/21/6431/reproductive-roulette/
  36. Justine Mathieu-Denoncourt, Sarah J. Wallace, Shane R. de Solla, Valerie S. Langlois, Plasticizer endocrine disruption: Highlighting developmental and reproductive effects in mammals and non-mammalian aquatic species, General and Comparative Endocrinology, Volume 219, 2015, Pages 74-88, ISSN 0016-6480, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.11.003
  37. Gritz, Emily C., and Vineet Bhandari. “The Human Neonatal Gut Microbiome: A Brief Review.” Frontiers in Pediatrics 3 (2015): 17. PMC. Web. 28 Sept. 2016. doi:10.3389/fped.2015.00017.
  38. Harvard Medical School. "Our microbes, ourselves: Billions of bacteria within, essential for immune function, are ours alone." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120621130643.htm (accessed September 26, 2016).
  39. Nierenberg, Cari. “Stay Up Late? How It Could Hurt Your Fertility” LiveScience. July 15, 2014. accessed Oct. 4, 2016.
  40. Kloss, Jacqueline D et al. “Sleep, sleep disturbance, and fertility in women” Sleep medicine reviews vol. 22 (2014): 78-87.
  41. Harvard Medical School. “Blue light has a dark side: Exposure to blue light at night, emitted by electronics and energy-efficient lightbulbs, harmful to your health.” Harvard Health Publications.  Updated: September 2, 2015 Originally published: May 2012
  42. Singer, Katie. “Fertility Awareness, Food, and Night-Lighting” Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts, Weston A. Price Foundation, Spring 2004.
  43. Harvard Medical School. “Blue light has a dark side: Exposure to blue light at night, emitted by electronics and energy-efficient lightbulbs, harmful to your health.” Harvard Health Publications.  Updated: September 2, 2015 Originally published: May 2012
  44. Gillerman, K., N. Rehman, M. Dilgil, et al. “The Impact of Acupuncture on IVF Success Rates: A Randomised Controlled Trial.” Homerton University Hospital, Homerton Fertility Centre, London, UK, presented at the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology 32nd Annual Meeting, Helsinki, Finland, July 3–6, 2016.


  1. https://www.forbes.com/sites/marycarreon/2018/05/17/new-study-highlights-the-social-impacts-of-cannabis-legalization-in-california/#36ad53842194
  2. Monte AA, Zane RD, Heard KJ. The implications of marijuana legalization in Colorado. JAMA. 2015;313(3):241-2.
  3. Schinke S, Schwinn T, Hopkins J, Gorroochurn P, Wahlstrom L. Is the Legalization of Marijuana Associated With Its Use by Adolescents?. Subst Use Misuse. 2016;52(2):256-258.
  4. Maier SL., et al. “The Implications of Marijuana Decriminalization and Legalization on Crime in the United States.” Contemporary Drug Problems, vol. 44, no. 2, June 2017, pp. 125–146,
  5. Vandrey R, Herrmann ES, Mitchell JM, et al. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Oral Cannabis in Humans: Blood and Oral Fluid Disposition and Relation to Pharmacodynamic Outcomes. J Anal Toxicol. 2017;41(2):83-99.
  6. Cutis. 2017 Jul;100(1):50-52.Topical cannabinoids in dermatology.
  7. Psychol Med. 2010 Mar;40(3):383-98. doi: 10.1017/S0033291709990729. Epub 2009 Jul 23.Neuroimaging in cannabis use: a systematic review of the literature.Martín-Santos R1, Fagundo AB, Crippa JA, Atakan Z, Bhattacharyya S, Allen P, Fusar-Poli P, Borgwardt S, Seal M, Busatto GF, McGuire P.
  8. Behav Pharmacol. 2018 Oct;29(7):605-616. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0000000000000426. The acute effects of cannabis on human executive function. Oomen PP1, van Hell HH, Bossong MG.
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791144/
  10. Grotenhermen F, Müller-Vahl K. The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012;109(29-30):495-501.
  11. Stith SS, Vigil JM, Brockelman F, Keeling K, Hall B. Patient-Reported Symptom Relief Following Medical Cannabis Consumption. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:916. Published 2018 Aug 28. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00916
  12. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Jun;97(6):575-86. doi: 10.1002/cpt.108. Epub 2015 Apr 17.Cannabis in cancer care. Abrams DI1, Guzman M2.
  13. Hill KP, Palastro MD, Johnson B, Ditre JW. Cannabis and Pain: A Clinical Review. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):96-104. Published 2017 May 1. doi:10.1089/can.2017.0017
  14. Rationale for cannabis-based interventions in the opioid overdose crisis. Harm Reduct J. 2017;14(1):58. Published 2017 Aug 18. doi:10.1186/s12954-017-0183-9
  15. Pediatrics. 2017 Nov;140(5). pii: e20171818. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-1818. Medical Cannabinoids in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.Wong SS1, Wilens TE2.
  16. Seizure. 2016 Feb;35:41-4. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2016.01.004. Epub 2016 Jan 6.CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience.
  17. Hoffenberg EJ, Newman H, Collins C, Tarbell S, Leinwand K. Cannabis and Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Change Blossoms a Mile High. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(2):265-271.
  18. Marjorie A. Bowman, Dean A. Seehusen, and Anne Victoria Neale. Health Care Integration and Coordination with Emphasis on Mental Health, but Not for Medical Marijuana. J Am Board Fam Med September-October 2018 31:667-670; doi:10.3122/jabfm.2018.05.180189
  19. Chadwick B, Miller ML, Hurd YL. Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness. Front Psychiatry. 2013;4:129. Published 2013 Oct 14. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00129
  20. Buchy L, Perkins D, Woods SW, Liu L, Addington J. Impact of substance use on conversion to psychosis in youth at clinical high risk of psychosis. Schizophr Res. 2014;156(2-3):277-80.
  21. Hanna RC, Shalvoy A, Cullum CM, et al. Cognitive Function in Individuals With Psychosis: Moderation by Adolescent Cannabis Use. Schizophr Bull. 2016;42(6):1496-1503.
  22. Rieder MJ, Canadian Paediatric Society, Drug Therapy and Hazardous Substances Committee. Is the medical use of cannabis a therapeutic option for children?. Paediatric Child Health. 2016;21(1):31-4.
  23. Ribeiro LI, Ind PW. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2016;26:16071. Published 2016 Oct 20. doi:10.1038/npjpcrm.2016.71
  24. Nelson, B. (2015), Cannabis conundrum: Evidence of harm?: Opposition to marijuana use is often rooted in arguments about the drug's harm to children and adults, but the scientific evidence is seldom clear‐cut. Cancer Cytopathology, 123: 1-2. doi:10.1002/cncy.21516
  25. Crippa JA, Crippa AC, Hallak JE, Martín-Santos R, Zuardi AW. Δ9-THC Intoxication by Cannabidiol-Enriched Cannabis Extract in Two Children with Refractory Epilepsy: Full Remission after Switching to Purified Cannabidiol. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:359. Published 2016 Sep 30. doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00359
  26. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/parenting-cannabis-legalization-normalization-1.4823649
  27. Napper LE, Froidevaux NM, LaBrie JW. Being Blunt About Marijuana: Parent Communication About Marijuana with Their Emerging Adult Children. Prev Sci. 2016;17(7):882-91.
  28. Capaldi DM, Tiberio SS, Kerr DC, Pears KC. The Relationships of Parental Alcohol Versus Tobacco and Marijuana Use With Early Adolescent Onset of Alcohol Use. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2016;77(1):95-103.